§Definitions of Dialectics
- Engels' definition in Anti-Duhring or
- Engels' definition in Utopian and Scientific or
- Engels' definition in Ludwig Feuerbach.
- Hegel's definition in his critique of Kant.
- Not a "subjective seesaw of pro and con"
- Hegel's definition in Science of Logic, and
- To hold fast to the positive in its negative and
- Hegel's definition in The Absolute Idea or
- The science exhibits itself as a circle returning upon itself, the end being wound back into the beginning, the simple ground, by the mediation; this circle is moreover a circle of circles
- Dialectics, according to Hegel, was the form of thought that included the process both of elucidating contradictions and of concretely resolving them. [Ilyenkov]
- Lenin's definition in annotations on Book I,
- flexibility of concepts,
- the whole of Lenin's summary of Dialectics.
§Nature - examples of Dialectics in Nature
§The Greeks - references to the Biographies
- §Heraclitus, 544 - 483 BCE,
- §Leucippus, 500 BCE,
- §Zeno of Elea, 490 - 430 BCE,
- §Socrates, 469-399 BCE,
- §Democritus, 460 - 370 BCE,
- §Plato, 428-347 BCE,
- §Aristotle, 384-322 BCE,
- §Epicurus, 341 - 270 BCE,
- §Zeno of Citium, 336 - 264 BCE,
See comments the Greeks generally:
§Natural Science - Comments and Criticisms of the Methods and Concepts of Natural Science
§Examples in Personal Life and Development
§Social and Historical Examples of Dialectics
§Definitions of the Absolute
Hegel says: "The different stages of the logical idea are to be treated as a series of definitions of the Absolute"
The following stages are mentioned:
"The terms in Essence are always mere pairs of correlatives, and yet not absolutely reflected in themselves"
§Comparisons of Hegel and Marx
- Feuerbach is the only person who has a serious and critical attitude to the Hegelian dialectic ... Feuerbach's great achievement is: ...
- Hegel has merely discovered the abstract, logical, speculative expression of the movement of history
- Hegel conceives wealth, the power of the state, etc., as entities estranged from the being of man, he conceives them only in their thought form
- He sees only the positive and not the negative side of labour
- For Hegel, human nature, man, is equivalent to self-consciousness. ...On the contrary, actual estrangement [is] the appearance of the estrangement of real human nature, of self-consciousness
- having superseded religion and recognised it as a product of self-alienation, he still finds himself confirmed in religion as religion
- Hegel fell into the illusion of conceiving the real as the product of thought concentrating itself,... whereas the method of rising from the abstract to the concrete is only the way in which thought appropriates the concrete, reproduces it as the concrete in the mind
- My dialectic method is not only different from the Hegelian, but is its direct opposite
- In Capital, Marx applied to a single science logic, dialectics and the theory of knowledge of materialism which has taken everything valuable in Hegel and developed it further
- The core of "Hegelianism", of abstract and abstruse (ponderous, absurd?) Hegelianism?? .. had to be discovered, understood, rescued, laid bare, refined, which is precisely what Marx and Engels did
- It is impossible completely to understand Marx's Capital, and especially its first Chapter, without having thoroughly studied and understood the whole of Hegel's Logic
§Thought forms and the Objective World
- Logic derived from a survey of the whole system
- The distinction between Sense, Conception, and Thought.
- Thought regarded as an activity
- By the act of reflection something is altered
- The Objectivity of Thought
- Thought is the constitutive substance of external things
- For these thousands of years the same Architect has directed the work ... the one living Mind
- The Notion constitutes a stage of nature as well as of spirit. Life, or organic nature, is the stage of nature at which the Notion emerges
- God is only nature
- Logical Idea, Nature and Mind three figures of a syllogism
- The notion is not palpable to the touch, and when we are engaged with it, hearing and seeing must quite fail us. And yet, . . .
- The universal ... cost thousands of years to enter the consciousness of men
- The notion is the genuine first
- Neither the notion nor the judgement are merely found in our head
- A study of Logic is no more necessary to teach us how to draw correct conclusions, than a previous study of anatomy and physiology is required in order to digest
- In the idea we have nothing to do with the individual
- The Idea, as unity of the Subjective and Objective Idea, is the absolute and all truth, the Idea which thinks itself
- The truth is that Nature is the creation of Spirit
- The Idea, in positing itself as absolute unity of the pure Notion and its reality and thus contracting itself into the immediacy of being, is the totality in this form - Nature.
- excessive tenderness for the world, to remove contradiction from it and then to transfer the contradiction to spirit.
- Language (speech) is, nevertheless, not the sole empirically observed form in which human thought manifests itself. [Ilyenkov]
- Hegel was more aware of the contradiction between the world of things outside consciousness and the world of thought than his naive critics. [Ilyenkov]
§Critiques of Kant
§Critiques of Formal Logic
§Unity of Opposites